Book review: Manual of Tree Statics and Tree Inspection

First and foremost, for those interested in purchasing the English version of the book, you can do so via the publisher Patzer Verlag, Summerfield Books or the Arboricultural Association. It’s not a cheap book and thus, for many, demands strong consideration before purchase, which is one of the core tenets behind why I wanted to read and review this book promptly following on from its publication. Therefore, my intention with this review is to give more information about the book over and above simply the listing of the chapters and sub-chapters, which are provided by the book sellers. Hence, interspersed amongst my review are photographs of the book, which will hopefully help guide you in your decision-making process. In fact, here’s an image for you, off the bat!

Quite a nicely presented hardback. The select illustrations you see on the front here occur throughout the book – hardly a page goes by where there isn’t at least one such image.

As regards the content, therefore, the book begins with a very succinct introduction followed by an extensive assessment of the countless aspects pertaining to tree biology. This biology section is adorned with illustrations that, as is the case across the entire book, help greatly with the simple conveyance of the core messages put forth by the authors – indeed, as is so prevalent and well-received across Mattheck’s works (in spite of the disagreements the autors have with the t/r ratio and h/d ratio, which they detail within). Somehow, I doubt this inclusion of illustrations is coincidental and instead a homage or emulation of what works well when describing detailed concepts in only a few words. Critically, with a book detailed as one that covers tree statics, the incorporation of tree biology into the statics model is included, which keeps the book on track from the beginnings and saves it from veering off course into just one that echoes prior understanding.

At this point, an interjection is necessary. Specifically, for the purpose of highlighting some of the very curious qualities of this chapter – in the good sense. Principally, an addition to the developing understanding of summer branch drop is provided, whereby the authors detail that, on top of the impact drought has on the failure of large branches, temperature plays a possibly significant role. Why, you ask? Because, as the authors detail, the pretensioning of a tree’s wood fibres (i.e. the manner in which it loads itself under its own weight and optimises itself for this) is lessened by heat, which relaxes the wood fibres – including atop branch junctions. When compiled with the fact that trees are much stronger under tension than compression, the developing compression zones underneath the branch junction (and just behind the branch collar) as the wood fibres relax atop build up and, alongside other factors (including drought and probably many other unknown variables), the branch can subsequently suddenly fail. The authors delve into this phenomenon more in the third chapter and beyond. Other intriguing and enlightening aspects of this second chapter include the remarks on how construction works impact upon tree stability, in addition to the efficacy of ivy to be both a bane and a blessing for the tree, as regards oscillation and damping during wind loads.

It is however the third chapter that arguably provides the most appreciable benefit to the reader, as it takes us into the realm of tree statics in the direct sense. The intricacies of the chapter will, of course, largely evade this review, as the intention of this post is not to ‘spoil’ the contents of the book to any marked degree and make its purchase redundant. Instead, what can be said is that it delves effectively into critical facets of statics and, in my personal opinion, the segment on wind loading and the impact of crown architecture and elevation on loading forces is most brilliant – even down to the illustrations and mathematical examples, which really do simplify an evidently complex engineering approach to tree risk assessment.

A segment from this third chapter, demonstrating how the authors blend text with diagrammatic models and more general illustrations.

Moreover, the discussion on the importance of hollowness for trees and why it should not always be considered a concern to the tree inspector is welcomed (unless it’s an open cavity and then, please, do be more worried straight off of the bat). In fact, and I quote: “the dimensions of a cavity in a tree have absolutely no informative value, as long as the occurring loads are not known.” Therefore, the t/r ratio Mattheck provided, the authors allege, is meaningless and incorrect.

Amazingly (from a factoid perspective), the authors then detail that a tree with a dbh of 1m and a central cavity leaving only 10cm of sound radial wood around the circumference has the same load-bearing capacity as a tree that is completely sound and has a dbh of 84cm! Of course, from an angle of understanding where the maximum loads occur, the fact that wood fibres stretch and compress far more at the outer sections of the stem than they do internally (with the neutral axis generally being the centre) gives credence and context to this assertion. The understanding of hollowness on older (veteran) trees is also discussed in a very articulate manner and, as it so seems, the greater risk for such trees is not failure of the trunk or root plate but of large lateral limbs attached to a hollowing trunk that can no longer sufficiently support such a mechanical load.

On this note, the outlining of root plate architecture is also deserving of mention. In this third chapter, the authors do a superb job of explaining why and how root plates fail and why, for all intents and purposes, extensive buttressing and adventitious rooting is not necessarily to be looked upon as defective. Using the example of a mature beech (see a below photo that I took recently), they allude to the often very pronounced root plate acting as a counter-balance to the lever arm that is the trunk (think of a very wide-based wine glass and compare it to a narrow-based one – which tilts more readily?). Indeed, where fungal decay is evident, as in the below photo, the effectiveness of the wide root plate comes into question, however.

Fagus sylvatica mature buttressing Ganoderma Meripilus 8
The admirable root plate of a mature beech. In this case, Ganoderma australe is compromising the butt and principal rooting structure, though where decay is not evident or is limited then a wider root plate is very effective at supporting the tree during times of wind loading – certainly more so than where such a wide root plate is not evident, on mature beech.

At this point, the notion of slenderness also enters the equation and, very curiously, the book asserts that slender multi-stemmed trees are more likely to oscillate excessively in wind loading conditions and fail, when compared to single-stemmed trees of equal slenderness. However, more crucially, why slenderness equals higher oscillatory frequency and thus denotes a greater risk of failure is detailed, which drives home the importance of not thinning out groups of trees and expecting the remaining ones to be able to stand wind-firm (the so-called ‘domino effect’ is also defined, whereby trees at a woodland edge successively fail, as those around become exposed after an initial tree fails and then those around it also fail).

And my favourite quote(s) of the third chapter? In reference to reaction growth laid down by the tree due to decay or other structural matters: “the development of symptoms is an expression of the vitality of the tree, not of its weakness” and that “focussing on so called symptoms can be absolutely counterproductive” – assuming, of course, you don’t quantify the weakness by ascertaining its load-bearing capacity (which is where statics comes in). Assumptions, therefore, are not good (though we all do assume, every day, when we assess trees, when working with outward symptoms solely).

A segment of the fourth chapter. This double page spread is certainly one of the rarer examples of where illustrations do not dress the paper in abundance.

Moving into the fourth chapter, we’re first greeted with a rather novel take on tree assessment: do not negate the emotional aspect of the act. To be precise, from this, I understand it as the authors inferring that the intuitive assessment of a tree, from afar, takes into account both our logical deduction of its form (based on the scientific understanding of what denotes good structural architecture in trees) and surrounds (targets, exposure, etc) and also its innate emotional ‘appeal’ (i.e. is the tree ‘harmonious’ and flowing well, or is it a rough and jagged structure that is abrasive to the eye and clearly there is something awry that demands more investigation). Here, the authors then throw in the concept of a female breast being harmonious (and not at all like a brick…!) to a child, who can appreciate the allure of that particular aspect of female anatomy for its biological purposes. I presume this wasn’t a translation error (of which there are a few, across the entire book, but it largely flows very well)! Thus, trees are like female breasts: harmonious (I could end the review here, quite frankly, for the comedic value).

Anyway, this fourth chapter then goes on to outline, to a very detailed degree, with the support of various diagrams in the sixth chapter (the ‘Annexes’), more about SIA (static integrated assessment). For something that I admittedly had considered quite complex, which it still certainly is, the authors do a stellar job in simplifying the concept and utilise diagrams and drawings to help ensure the reader can understand the message being conveyed. The explanation of the rationale behind why this methodology, provided in preceding chapters and also in this one, helps to contextualise the methodology and, quite truthfully, it’s a form of tree assessment that I am now keen to put into some form of practice. The statement the authors make about microdrills essentially being redundant now that sonic tomography has arisen from the mulch is also a curious one, which is deserving of some consideration, when appreciating that the former causes damage to trees and the latter, almost wholly, does not; in addition to the ability for a tomograph (i.e. PiCUS or ARBOTOM) to plot an entire cross-section and not just track the path of a single drill bitand provide information from that sole path.

A further useful segment within the fourth chapter is that of the pests and pathogens of the leaves and shoots of many common European tree species and genera. Indeed, the assertion that horse chestnut leaf miner is not solely an aesthetic issue is a welcome one, as for whatever concerning reason that understanding of it being only an aesthetic pest is still accepted by some in the industry. The section also has a really nice little bit of information on Massaria disease of plane, with a distinct Teutonic angle (as one would expect, from German authors).

A double page spread of the section of pests and diseases of the shoots and leaves of trees common to Europe.

The (‘technically’) last chapter, the fifth, draws upon the information provided within all prior chapters and provides the reader with guidance on how to, following the identification of a need to manage the tree (be it a newly-planted tree or veteran in a park or construction site), effectively enact a management regime that will be of benefit to the longevity of the tree in the landscape (this is why we manage many trees in ways that doesn’t see them get felled). Indeed, this chapter presents a lovely succinct look at the need to strongly consider management options, as in deciding upon a route there is then, in theory, no going back upon that decision (once scheduled work has been completed).

The encouragement by the authors to refrain from using a rigid support system, be that system a stake for a young tree or steel braces for old trees with slender co-dominant limbs, and instead utilise a flexible and dynamic system, is therefore well-received, as they present their argument in a sound and logical manner. Importantly, for bracing, the authors even go so far as to detail what angle a brace should be applied at and the load that it should be able to bear relative to the size of the parts being connected, which elevates this book to a level beyond that of others that, from memory, do not provide as much detail. Their comments on propping with A-frames and not upside-down V-frames are also welcomed and articulated so well with so few words. Again, illsurations really help instruct the reader and break the text apart, thereby making the reading more ‘bite-sized’.

limb propping tree lateral load a-frame
This duo of props fails to suppprt the limb against lateral forces, given their design. In lacking an A-framed design, these props are thus not optimally positioned to keep the limb of this sycamore from failing under a torsional load.

Finally, the appendices presented in chapter 6, which support many of the assertions made in the earlier chapters, arrive. There exist some fabulous tables showcasing the wood properties of different tree genera (cellular make up, strength, etc), the speed at which tree genera move water up the trunk in metres per hour, the compartmentalisation ability of different species and genera, and a comparison of various forms of tree assessment and their strengths / weaknesses. Also within these annexes is information on how hollow trees fail and a description of principal wood-decay fungi and their significance. The fungal section is limited in detail and species diversity (because it’s only an annex and thus cannot possibly be as detailed as a dedicated book on fungi) though, concerningly, the brittle cinder (Kretzschmaria deusta) is described as a white rot in a comparitive table (whilst being correctly marked as a soft rot in its descriptive text). Proofing of the text should have picked this up, as it is perhaps the most significant mistake in the book (all other issues identified are largely translation errors or typos, from what I could spot). The comments on Perenniporia fraxinea preferring robinia (Robinia pseudoacacia) over any other host tree in urban areas where soil is compacted are, nonetheless, very interesting. Anecdotally, I can understand and agree with this assertion.

So, my thoughts to summarise? This is a very useful book that serves not only as a primer for the statics integrated assessment model but also for tree visual assessments on the whole. The eagerness of the authors to promote analytical thinking of the reader was pervasive throughout and, in some respects, this book could essentially serve as a 101 for tree inspections and management to any tree inspector. Of course, the title alludes to this by referring to tree inspection, though I admit I was taken aback (in a positive sense) on how much breadth this book covered in so few words and so many images. For me, the mix works well and therefore the looming threat of a wall-of-text was evaded. Perhaps it is just me, though I can pick up influences from Shigo and Mattheck, in the use of few choice words to describe complex matters and to support such words with harmonious (see what I did there?) images.

If you have around £115 to spend and want a book that you can refer to routinely, this will be worth purchasing. Don’t think you’ll be getting an impossibly wordy book that delves into tree statics down to the minute level, however. That is reserved for other literature and, in my perspective, rightly so.

Book review: Manual of Tree Statics and Tree Inspection

Book scores; including on tree statics (!)

The library amasses further numbers with the below six books, which arrived during this month. All, quite obviously, pertain to trees and the landscape, and of notable interest will be the new tree statics book that was recently translated into English from German and published. Expect a detailed review of this book in the coming few days (currently around half way through reading it).

As always, links to where you can buy the books are given at the end of this post. Note that those ordered from Oxbow were acquired for a good third of their suggested retail value, as they were doing a clearance sale. Quite honestly, for anyone who likes anything to do with landscape history and ecology, bookmarking this particular publisher and distributor will yield some awesome results. For tree lovers, the imprint Windgather Press is probably one to keep a tabs on, as many of the books published involve trees.

new book purchases tree statics

To the left, we have a very interesting book on the mapping of Norfolk by William Faden and how the landscape has changed from then through to now. Tom Williamson, one of the authors, is a prominent authority on landscape history and thus the book does delve into the rural landscape of Norfolk and, to a degree, arboreal heritage. I picked it up for £10 (down from £30), and as of the time of this blog post it is still on sale and can be purchased here.

Along the top row working from the left, we first have the new book on tree statics and visual assessment, which, as I mentioned, will feature as a detailed review in a coming blog post. It’s certainly an expensive book so it is one to research before purchasing. By all means, await my review before deciding. This book I acquired for £115 from Summerfield Books at this link.

Adjacent is what looks to be a truly captivating book on the Cedar of Lebanon and its prominence in human history. From my readings on this tree in the culture and religion of many historic peoples, this will be next on my list of reading material and will undoubtedly be rich in information that helps build my view of the tree further. As a very recently publication, it can be purchased via Archaeopress for £36 here. Please, consider trawling their book store as there are some other very great books they sell that involve trees and the natural landscape.

The lower duo are books on the historic gardens of Derbysire (left) and hedgerows across Britain (right). Following on from the information provided in Mark Johnston’s Trees in Towns and Cities: A History of British Urban Arboriculture, I have been keen to learn more about pleasure gardens and earlier arboretums / plant collections, so this book specific to Derbyshire will hopefully supplement my learning on this front and can be bought here from Oxbow Books. As for the latter, the detailed exploration of hedgerow characteristics and distribution throughout Britain is somthing that, would you have guessed, I also find intriguing. Indeed, hedgerows have historically – and still are – being gutted, for a variety of reasons, which means understanding what makes them unique (even down to a specific region) and crucial ecological and cultural features very necessary. This book is currently reduced from £25 to £10 on Oxbow Books and can be purchased here. The book is clad with images and can easily be read entirely in a day.

The last book, which is all the way to the right, further expands upon my desire to learn more about botanic gardens. Instead of Derbyshire however, this book takes the reader to Manchester – specifically, the Manchester Botanic Garden. At £5, though reduced from £25, its acquisition was a no-brainer and, from scanning the book, it appears an utter steal. Again, this was purchased via Oxbow Books via this link.

Keep an eye out for my review of the tree statics book. Hopefully, if all goes to plan, it’ll be online before the close of the bank holiday.

Book scores; including on tree statics (!)

Street Trees in Britain: A History (new book, October 2017)

As I was trawling the depths of the Oxbow Books store, which is an utter treasure trove of books on various matters (many pertain to trees, hedgerows, gardens, woodlands, forests and the broader concept of landscape ecology – notably from the imprint Windgather Press), I came across a new book, to be released later this year, by Mark Johnston, the author of Trees in Towns and Cities: A History of British Urban Arboriculture.

So what is the title of this book? If you paid attention to the title, you’d already know, though for the sake of clarification it’s Street Trees in Britain: A History. As regards a description of the text, taken from the publisher’s page:

The trees which line many of the streets in our towns and cities can often be regarded as part of a heritage landscape. Despite the difficult conditions of an urban environment, these trees may live for 100 years or more and represent ‘living history’ in the midst of our modern streetscapes. This is the first book on the history of Britain’s street trees and it gives a highly readable, authoritative and often amusing account of their story, from the tree-lined promenades of the seventeenth century to the majestic boulevards that grace some of our modern city centres.

The impact of the Victorian street tree movement is examined, not only in the major cities but also in the rapidly developing suburbs that continued to expand through the twentieth century. There are fascinating descriptions of how street trees have helped to improve urban conditions in spa towns and seaside resorts and also in visionary initiatives such as the model villages, garden cities, garden suburbs and new towns.

While much of the book focuses on the social and cultural history of our street trees, the last three chapters look at the practicalities of how these trees have been engineered into concrete landscapes. This includes the many threats to street trees over the years, such as pollution, conflict with urban infrastructure, pests and diseases and what is probably the greatest threat in recent times – the dramatic growth in car ownership.

Street Trees in Britain will have particular appeal to those interested in heritage landscapes, urban history and the natural and built environment. Some of its themes were introduced in the author’s previous work, the widely acclaimed Trees in Towns and Cities: A History of British Urban Arboriculture.

Retailing at £30, you can currently pre-order it for £22.50, which seems like a relative steal. I would strongly recommend that, if you are to pre-order it, you do so via the publisher here, which supports them directly and will enable them to continue to press more books of a similar nature. At the very least, they’ve got a pre-order through me, though given many who frequent this blog are from the United Kingdom, I hope they’ll receive more interest (I’m sure they will!) prior to the book’s publication.

Street Trees in Britain: A History (new book, October 2017)

State forestry across the world – a list of books

State forestry is a political and ecological phenomenon that has occurred across all continents and almost all countries, though for all the history it should have trying to pin-point fine sources of information can be difficult. Therefore, in order to help any of you who are interested in this topic track down the information you need readily, I list below a series of books that delve intricately into the matter that I personally own copies of. Indeed, other books do exist, though I cannot attest to their content and thus won’t list them.

With reference to the links provided, I have tried to link to the original publisher where the book still seems to be widely aailable. However, for books that are seemingly out of print, I have linked to third-party seller sites, with other publishers and AbeBooks being the principal links, and followed by Amazon. Please be aware, however, that the links provided do not send you to the site selling the books for the lowest value.


Anderson, A., May, P., & Balick, M. (1991) The Subsidy from Nature: Palm Forests, Peasantry, and Development on an Amazon Frontier. Columbia University Press.

Burma (Myanmar)

Bryant, R. (1997) The Political Ecology of Forestry in Burma. Hurst & Company.


Matteson, K. (2015) Forests in Revolutionary France: Conservation, Community, and Conflict, 1669-1848.Cambridge University Press.

Sahlins, P. (1994) Forest Rites: The War of the Demoiselles in Nineteenth-Century France. Harvard University Press.

Whited, T. (2000) Forests and Peasant Politics in Modern France. Yale University Press.

Forests and Peasant Politics in Modern France


Nelson, A. (2005) Cold War Ecology: Forests, Farms, and People in the East German Landscape, 1945-1989. Yale University Press.

Cold War Ecology: Forests, Farms, & People in the East German Landscape

Wibe, S. & Jones, T. (1992) Forests: Market Intervention Failures – Five Case Studies. Earthscan.


Asante, M. (2005) Deforestation in Ghana: Explaining the Chronic Failure of Forest Preservation Policies in a Developing Country. University Press of America.

Great Britain

Miles, R. (1969) Forestry in the English Landscape. Faber & Faber.

Oosthoek, J. (2013) Conquering the Highlands: A history of the afforestation of the Scottish uplands. ANU Press.

Conquering the Highlands

Ryle, G. (1969) Forest Service: The First Forty-Five Years of the Forestry Commission of Great Britain. David & Charles.

Tsouvalis, J. (2000) A Critical Geography of Britain’s State Forests. Oxford University Press.

Wibe, S. & Jones, T. (1992) Forests: Market Intervention Failures – Five Case Studies. Earthscan.


Barton, G. (2002) Empire Forestry and the Origins of Environmentalism. Cambridge University Press.

Empire Forestry and the Origins of Environmentalism

Guha, R. (1989) The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in the Himalaya. Oxford University Press.

Rajan, S. (2006) Modernizing Nature: Forestry and Imperial Eco-Development 1800-1950. Orient Longman.


McCarthy, J. (2006) The Fourth Circle: A Political Ecology of Sumatra’s Rainforest Frontier. Stanford University Press.

Peluso, N. (1992) Rich Forests, Poor People: Resource Control and Resistance in Java. University of California Press.

Israel / Palestine

Braverman, I. (2009) Planted Flags: Trees, Land, and Law in Israel/Palestine. Cambridge University Press.

Cohen, S. (1993) The Politics of Planting: Israeli-Palestinian Competition for Control of Land in the Jerusalem Periphery. University of Chicago Press.

The Politics of Planting

Lipschitz, N. & Biger, G. (2004) Green Dress for a Country: Afforestation in Eretz Israel 1850-1950. KKL.

Tal, A. (2013) All the Trees of the Forest: Israel’s Woodlands from the Bible to the Present. Yale University Press.


Wibe, S. & Jones, T. (1992) Forests: Market Intervention Failures – Five Case Studies. Earthscan.


Totman, C. (1989) The Green Archipelago: Forestry in Pre-Industrial Japan. Ohio University Press.


Mathews, A. (2011) Instituting Nature: Authority, Expertise, and Power in Mexican Forests. The MIT Press.

Instituting Nature


Hisham, M., Sharma, J., & Ngaiza, A. (1991) Whose Trees?: A People’s View of Forestry Aid. Panos Publications.


Barr, B. & Braden, K. (1988) The Disappearing Russian Forest: A Dilemma in Soviet Resource Management. Rowman & Littlefield.

Bonhomme, B. (2005) Forests, Peasants, and Revolutionaries: Forest Conservation and Organization in Soviet Russia, 1917-1929. Columbia University Press.

Brain, S. (2011) Song of the Forest: Russian Forestry and Stalinist Environmentalism, 1905-1953. University of Pittsburgh Press.

South Africa

Bennett, B. & Kruger, F. (2015) Forestry and Water Conservation in South Africa: History, Science and Policy. Australian National University Press.

Forestry and Water Conservation in South Africa: History, Science and Policy


Wibe, S. & Jones, T. (1992) Forests: Market Intervention Failures – Five Case Studies. Earthscan.


Hisham, M., Sharma, J., & Ngaiza, A. (1991) Whose Trees?: A People’s View of Forestry Aid. Panos Publications.


Wibe, S. & Jones, T. (1992) Forests: Market Intervention Failures – Five Case Studies. Earthscan.


Hisham, M., Sharma, J., & Ngaiza, A. (1991) Whose Trees?: A People’s View of Forestry Aid. Panos Publications.

Sunseri, T. (2009) Wielding the Ax: State Forestry and Social Conflict in Tanzania, 1820-2000. Ohio University Press.


Tegbaru, A. (1998) Forests, Farmers and the State: Environment and Resistance in Northeastern Thailand. Stockholm University.

Usher, A. (2009) Thai Forestry: A Critical History. Silkworm Books.

TF Cover create.indd
Thai Forestry: A Critical History

United States of America

Barton, G. (2002) Empire Forestry and the Origins of Environmentalism. Cambridge University Press.

Catton, T. (2016) American Indians and National Forests. University of Arizona Press.

Cohen, S. (2004) Planting Nature: Trees and the Manipulation of Environmental Stewardship in America. University of California Press.

Miller, C. (1997) American Forests: Nature, Culture, and Politics. University Press of Kansas.

Rutkow, E. (2012) American Canopy: Trees, Forests, and the Making of a Nation. Scribner.


Kwashirai, V. (2009) Green Colonialism in Zimbabwe 1890-1980. Cambria Press.

Green Colonialism in Zimbabwe 1890-1980
State forestry across the world – a list of books

Fascinated by Fungi? If yes…

…then there’s a book, authored by Pat O’Reilly, called exactly that: Fascinated by Fungi. It’s the second (and revised) edition, and it’s absolutely great. I’m currently reading through the New Naturalist book called Fungi by Spooner & Roberts (also one to get!) so I am eager to learn more about this kingdom. Therefore, as the First Nature website is one I use quite often to help identify new fungi found out in the field, when I noticed that one of the site’s moderators had published a new edition of one of his books there was only one choice: buy the book. Certainly, I am not disappointed, as it looks an awesome read and is so full of detail (including hundreds of photos). From the segments I have browsed through, it is also a very easy and enjoyable read, and should be one entrants to the world of fungi will be head-over-heels with.

You can purchase the hardback book here for a very fair (!!) price of £24.95 + postage and packaging. There are even some sample pages on the URL linked above, allowing you to basically preview some segments of the book. Check it out!

Fascinated by Fungi? If yes…