Fistulina hepatica’s anamorphic version: Confistulina

Having been informed earlier by a friend that they have an article coming out soon in the journal Field Mycology and having then read the article, I considered it important to build on the information and photos shared in the manner I am most familiar: ramblings. I do not want to spoil the article so please do source the article yourself, though as a form of executive summary, this fungus, Confistulina hepatica, is the anamorphic (asexual) stage of the fungus Fistulina hepatica (beefsteak), which is common on oak and sweet chestnut. I have found it once on beech, though it generally sticks to the first two hosts. This anamorphic stage produces asexual spore, which adorn the fruiting body’s outer portion in abundance. The reason for its emergence is not known, though it might be weather-related. More information is absolutely required from across its host range – not just England!

Disclaimer: The older finds, because I didn’t know what I was looking at, are quite poor photographs. A huge shame, but alas!

Disclaimer 2: I suspect many of these are the anamorphic stage Confistulina hepatica, though none were confirmed so please do not assume they all are. This blog post is simply to begin building a knowledge base that builds of the limited resource pool of present.

The first oak that I’ll share is perhaps one of the more interesting of the bunch because, two years in a row (2015 and 2016), the outwardly anamorphic fruiting body appeared in the same location; albeit, in 2015, the fruiting body was larger. Nonetheless, it infers that, in a crude manner, the same mycelial colony has done the same thing two years in succession. Unfortunately, during 2015, I didn’t get a shot of the whole tree so the location of the arrow points to the 2016 occurrence. However, from the positioning of the ivy, we can see the location is the same.

Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 1
The arrow points to the location, which is on the southern side of the tree right at the base.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 2
The 2015 version in its rotten glory!
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 3
The fruiting body sports what looks like burns, in addition to exuding a tar-coloured liquid alongside the more routinely observed reddish exudations common to young fruiting bodies.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 4
A closer look at the darker liquid from the 2015 version.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 5
And a puncture wound (so it appears) in the fruiting body.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 6
And the smaller 2016 emergence!
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 7
Again, we can see the darker liquid exudations. The morphology is also somewhat similar.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 8
Closer still on the 2016 find.

The next series of shots were taken on my mobile phone back in 2015 and again from oak. Once more, the adornment of the fruiting body with exudations, of which some are darker, can be observed. 2016 saw the fungus return, with a vengeance, and in a different position, again, an anamorphic fruiting body.

Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 9
Yes, this oak has been hammered. Poor tree! (2015)
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 10
At the base we can see the fruiting body.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 11
Oozing everywhere!
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 12
Looks like something out of Alien, quite honestly!
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 34
2016 checking in. What a load of rubbish!
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 35
Further round the tree (note that the 2015 location was to the right) sits an anamorphic fruiting body.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 36
A close(ish) look.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 37
Closer still.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 38
And closer yet further.

From here, we go to another 2015 find. This time, the fruiting body was a little elevated on the oak and evidently emanating from an area of burring / accumulation of dormant buds beneath the bark surface. This one quickly became senescent after perhaps a week so whether it’s Confistulina or not is tough to say – I include photos of both times I visited it. It did not reappear in 2016.

Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 13
The first visit to this fungus, which was very small – maybe 5cm across.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 14
A closer look.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 15
A week later it had senesced.

The remainder of the photos take us into 2016 and most (but not all!) are taken with a better camera, which is good! First, we venture down to the New Forest and look at a well-decayed oak log, upon which a cluster of fruiting bodies sit atop the log.

Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 16
Yes, yes, this photo was taken with a potato.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 17
A very odd form but once again we can see the tarry liquid.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 18
A side profile. Looks like a toe!
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 19
Yep, definitely a toe – a wrangled one, at that.

The next series are taken a month apart (late August and late September). What’s curious with this one is that we can see two anamorphic fruiting bodies and, come September, Laetiporus sulphureus fruiting directly alongside. The host, as can be seen, is oak, which is in a hedgerow of oak and ash.

Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 20
Fading light caused the blur!
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 21
At the base we can see a dueo of fruiting bodies.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 22
The first…
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 23
…and the gruesome second.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 25
A month later a wild chicken appeared!
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 26
Two, in fact. Here we see the beefsteak and chicken side-by-side.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 27
And here it’s in the distant murk.

Now, we move to a curious case of two fruiting bodies next to one another, again on oak, where one became a teleomorph and the other an anamorph. Why? Who knows. Very interesting, however, as I am sure you can appreciate.

Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 28
An oak pollard by a swing. Look at the old pollard head.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 29
A duo forming.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 30
Looking pretty similar. Now watch…
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 31
…they change! No longer are they twins.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 32
Exactly why this happened is a mystery though I’d really like to know – anamorph left) and teleomorph (right).
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 33
A side profile for comparison with the earlier one taken from the same position.

In October of 2016, I came across this majestic oak in a field. On a buttress root was what appeared to be an anamorphic fruiting body of Fistulina hepatica, which we can observe below.

Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 39
Yup – majestic.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 40
Also majestic??? (not sure!!)
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic oak Quercus 41
Eh, nope. A bit more ugly, to be fair. Has the outward character of an anamorph though please don’t assume it is (wasn’t confirmed via microscopy).

Lastly, here’s one I suspect on sweet chestnut. I didn’t return to check how it did, though this year I’ll certainly keep more of an eye out and be more thorough in my inspections of the samples! Please share any examples you might have found of this, too – it’s important we build up a knowledge base.

Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic sweet chestnut Castanea 1
A lovely old coppice stool.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic sweet chestnut Castanea 2
Here sits the sample.
Confistulina hepatica Fistulina anamorphic sweet chestnut Castanea 3
Whether this is or is not is tough to say, though it does resemble an anamorphic stage somewhat.
Fistulina hepatica’s anamorphic version: Confistulina